Esfahan, Isfahan or the ancient Apadana is the capital of the province with the same name. Esfahan Nesf-e Jahan is the most famous Persian description of the 16th century for this city, which means that Isfahan is half the world, this Florence of Orient is chosen and designed as the capital under Shah Abbas I (1598), and has been reconstructed with so many new mosques, beautiful palaces and bridges, masterpieces of world architecture, avenues and parks during Savafid dynasty.
Florence of Orient and Esfahan Nesf-e Jahan" (Esfahan is half the world) all are to describe the splendor of a city shining along its life-giving river at the heart of Iran.
In Esfahan You can hardly find a street without a wide central pedestrian reservation of trees, fountains and flowers. Behind every corner you stumble upon spectacular remainders of rich past. In its heyday under Safavid dynasty when the city flourished and gave birth to its outstanding Islamic and Iranian architecture, Esfahan was a large city with a population of one million and owned many parks, libraries, public baths, shops and mosques that amazed western visitors, who had not seen anything like that at home.
One of the great works of Shah Abass in that period was "The Pattern of the world" or Naqsh-e Jahan Square which is a real jewel in Isfahan's crown. This majestic collection of buildings fits money, worship and aristocratic pleasures together in deliberate visual harmony.
Somewhere in the west of Imam Square, a beautiful tree-lined boulevard, offers delightful hours of walking under its cool green shades. Chahar Bagh is the main street of Esfahan and traverses Zayandeh Rud through Si-o-se Pol. Zayandeh Rud is crossed by some of the world's most picturesque covered bridges.
Another sight worth spending hours of strolling is the city's four-mile labyrinthine bazaar, with its majestic Qeysarieh Portal in imam square. As Iran's artistic and craft centre and Esfahan's world famous fine carpets, handicrafts and textile, Grand Bazaar of Isfahan would be a charming adventure for shopaholics.
Andre Malraux, the famous French author and adventurer says: "Who can claim to have seen the most beautiful city of the world without having seen Esfahan?" therefore, do not hesitate to visit The Florence of Iran whose well-proportioned mosques whose turquoise blue dome and minarets rival the color of the sky.
Maidan-e-Imam , formerly known as Royal Square, was the symbolic center of the Safavid dynasty and the Persian Empire.this huge rectangular square measuring 160 x 512 m,is the second largest in the world. Framed by turquoise domed mosques, a palace perched on plane tree columns and a covered bazaar; it stands out as one of the most spectacular architectural complexes in Iran. In the background, the domes, minarets, the sensitive bustle of the bazaar whose mazes leave north of the square: everything contributes to evoke the most beautiful mirages of the East.
The great Safavid king, who made Isfahan his capital in 1598, rebuilt a new city according to a simple and grand plan, with vast ordinances and large breakthroughs , a fine example of urban planning ahead of its time. The heart was the king Place (1611), a huge perimeter surrounded by long walls with double arches and whose dimensions were designed to accommodate a polo field.
The Afghan invasion of 1722 put an end to the magnificence of a city that will struggle for two centuries to regain its rank. However, the immense restoration work undertaken has restored its entire splendor to Isfahan, which is again one of the largest urban centers in Iran. With incomparable monuments like the Imam Mosque (formerly the Royal Grand Mosque), one of the most beautiful in the country, Isfahan could not remain in the shade.
The Shah Mosque, now called the Imam Mosque, is located at the southern end of the imam square. The construction of this mosque, ordered by Shâh Abbâs Ier, took place from 1612 to 1627. Unlike the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, the Shah Mosque is built on the Iranian plan with four iwans surrounding a courtyard. The portal of the mosque is a pishtak, that is to say a large rectangle of masonry surrounding a shallow niche dominated by a Persian arch. It is flanked by two towers in the form of minarets. Two towers similar to the previous ones surround the main courtyard iwan which leads to the prayer hall surmounted by a large dome. From the courtyard, you can also access each of the two madrasas located on either side of the central courtyard. The entrance portal is aligned in the axis of the square but the orientation of the prayer hall towards Mecca induces a non-alignment of the perspective between the entrance portal, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the prayer hall building and the rest of the building.
This small mosque located on Southeast of the square, opposite the Ali Qâpu palace,was completed in 1619 by Mohammad Reza Isfahani (son of the architect of the Thirty-Three Arches Bridge), and owes its name to a prestigious theologian. Of more modest proportions than the great mosque, it is covered, outside as well as inside, with ceramics in rare tones. The glazed earthenware dome is decorated with blue flowers and white arabesques that stand out against a cream or pink background depending on the time of day.
Do not hesitate to give yourself some time for contemplation and to come back at different times of the day because of the whole changes radically according to the angle of the sun.
the highlight of the show is the ray of light filtered by high moucharabiehs placed in the drum supporting the dome and letting the "peacock tail" appear on the walls. Take the time to wander in this square room, 19 m wide, to vary the shades, colors and shadows on the decorations depending on the angle of entry of the sun's rays through the windows.
The mosque, once completed, was reserved for the private use of the Sheikh and his relatives, hence its nickname of the king's oratory. You will also notice the total absence of a minaret, a strange fact for a mosque, but the call of the muezzin was useless since only the Sheikh came to pray under the dome
This bridge connects the north to the south of Chahâr Bâgh Avenue, the main artery of Isfahan and then to the district of Djolfa. Si-o se pol dates back to the beginning of the 17th century (1603), when the district had just been taken over by the Armenians, it owes its name to a general of King Shah Abbas, the famous war chief in charge of the works. The latter had imagined the bridge as a point of exchange between the two communities, and imposed that travelers can spend the night there. The exchanges could be commercial, with the holding of a bazaar, but also cultural, with rooms planned for shows, storytellers, jugglers ... So that the bridge quickly became one of the liveliest places in Isfahan after its construction. With its thirty-three arcades on two levels, this magnificent structure is still the largest bridge in Isfahan today (298 m long and 14 m wide).
Located in Jolfa of Isfahan, Vank Cathedral, built first in 1606, is among the most famous churches in Iran. The building, protected in an inner courtyard, is flanked by a campanile (1700) and topped with an Islamic dome. There are Beautiful interiors with evangelical frescoes in particular, the scenes of resurrection, the terrible Last Judgement and the representation of Saint Saint Gregorian. there is a beautiful adjoining museum inside the courtyard which is Open at the same time as those of the cathedral. The ground floor of this museum is partly devoted to the genocide committed by the Turkish authorities in 1915, responsible for the death of one and a half million Armenians and in the first floor you can find some beautiful objects as well.
Isfahan Friday Mosque preserves evidence of a very long and very rich architectural history.this mosque was built in the four-iwan architectural style, each couple of gates facing each other. Each Iwan is decorated with breathtaking turquoise ceramics in shape of Muqarnas (niche-like cells).. On the north Iwan, there are 40 pillars, similar to Nasir-ol Molk Mosque in Shiraz. the famous Oljayto Mehrab and the great domes of the mosque are the masterpieces of art. If you stand right beneath one of the mosque domes, you will notice that the ceiling is closer than its loon from the outside. That is because these are no ordinary domes. They are actually double shelled domes, one shell inside the greater one.