Hamadan is one of the oldest centers of civilization. The city has been inhabited since the 2nd millennium BC. In the 7th century BC the city, by that time known as Ecbatana, was the capital city of the Medes. After an alliance between the Medes and the Persians, the city was renamed to Hagmatana and became the first capital of the Persian Empire.
this Seljuk-era square building was originally built as a mosque by the Alavian family. Originally the buliding included two minarets and a green dome, but it was later transformed into a family mausoleum by adding a crypt. The existence of a dome sanctuary located on the south side with beautiful decoration added to the richness of the construction.
2500 years ago, during the Achaemanian empire, Hegmataneh was one of the two capitals of this imperial world. Darius I (522-486 BC) carved his second inscription for posterity on the rocks of Saint Al-Wondwokh. then, his son Xerxès I (486-446 CE), inscribed the same inscription mentioned with some small changes on his own name. The inscriptions are written in 3 columns of 20 lines in three languages: "ancient Persian", "Elamite" and "Babylonian". The ancient Persian language is found on the left side of the two tablets and is 115 cm wide; the Elamite text is written in the middle of the two inscriptions and the Babylonian text is in the third column.This magnificent monument is located 5 km southwest of the historic city of Hamedan and welcomes historians, archaeologists and nature enthusiasts at the end of the lush road from Abbas Abad to Alvand Kouh and next to the Ganjnameh waterfall.
Avecina was a great medicine doctor, poet, scientist and philosopher of 10th century. Abu-Ali-Sina known as Avicenna in the west, among a lot of other achievements, wrote a medical encyclopaedia that has been mandatory reading for every medical student in Europe until the 19th century. His other works as a poet and philosopher are still studied today.
The Mausoleum of Avicenna is a complex dedicated to this Iranian polymath, the complex includes a library, a small museum, and a spindle-shaped tower inspired by the Ziyarid-era Kavus Tower,the tomb was built in 1952, replacing an older building destroyed in 1950.
Ali-Sadr cave is one of the most spectacular natural sites in Iran and also in the world because of its large open rivers and its many long aqueducts which are distributed throughout the cave. It is a unique geological phenomenon and just a few caves around the world like "Moulis cave" in France and "Chevalier cave" and "Boukan cave" in Australia are comparable with its splendid landscapes. The taste of the cave water is normal as well as its color and smell and there is no sign of life there. Its temperature remains constant throughout the year (about 12 degrees centigrade) and the water is very translucent to the point that you can see its depth up to ten meters in natural light without any blurring. The depth of the river varies from ten meters to fourteen meters in certain parts. The cave water comes from underground water sources, from projections and progressive seepage of water from the roof and walls of the cave, which in turn are fed by regular rains.
This cave is about 75 kilometers away from Hamedan and took its name from a nearby village.
Baba Tahir or Baba Taher Oryan Hamadani was an 11th century Persian dervish poet from Hamadan. Over the centuries, this structure has witnessed numerous destructions and reconstructions. The old building dates back to the Saljuq dynasty, then an octagonal brick tower was built during the 6th century on the funeral site of Baba Tahir, which was then destroyed. During the reign of the first Pahlavid king, the municipality of Hamadan built a new structure instead of the old one which was mainly made of bricks. During this reconstruction, the 7th-SH tile was obtained and is now in the Museum of Ancient Iran. On this turquoise tile, the Koranic verses are written in Kufic stereoscopic calligraphy. The construction of a new structure was carried out in 1344 SH with the help of the National Heritage Society of Iran and the city municipality.
The famous stone lion or Sang-e Shir of the Parthian period is located on a historic hill in Hamadān.
This stone lion, 2.5 meters long, was found during the conquest of Hamadan by the Arabs. it originally guarded one of the city gates, and may have been carved on the orders of Alexander the Great. Today very damaged, the women of the city worship him by applying their hands to him.
Esther and Mordechai synagogue
Since Achamenian period, there have been an important Jewish community in Hamadan.The main synagogue in Hamadan is the shrine of Esther, the Jewish wife of King Xerxes, and her uncle Mordechai. Although, some people claim it isn’t Esther who is buried here, but another Jewish Queen by the name of Shushan Dokht.
The tomb of Esther and Mordechai at Hamadan is first attested in the 11th century