The Ziggurat is a religious structure typical of major cities of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq and Iran), built as a pyramid-shaped temple. The construction of ziggurats was common from 4200 to 2500 years ago.The word ziggurat is a modern-day pronunciation of the Zighurtu an Akkadian term that comes from the Babylonian and Assyrian texts, meaning a multi-storied temple. The ziggurat is a tower-like pyramid-shaped temple with several floors above which the main temple was located. The construction of such monuments was common in almost all ancient cultures. Although many Elamites used to call it "Kokono", such monuments in Iran and Mesopotamia are nowadays called ancient ziggurats.
The first Ziggurat discovered by archaeologists was the Dur-sharrukin Ziggurat in the Assyrian capital. This ziggurat was built at the behest of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal in 630 BC. There are now three floors left, and the only access to the upper floors is through a ramp. The multiple floors of this ziggurat were painted in white, black and red (from bottom to the top).
The largest, most complex, and the most intact ziggurat ever found in Mesopotamia is the ziggurat of Ur, located in the ancient city of Ur near Nasiriyah, in the Iraqi province of Dhi Qar. This large polygon structure is 45 by 64 m and has three terraces at different levels that are 20 to 30 m high with a large staircase leading to each of these terraces. It was built in 21st c BCE by Ur- Nammu, the founder of the third dynasty of Ur, in order to be a temple to worship the goddess of moon called Nanna.
At the highest point of the ziggurat is said to be the temple of the goddess Nanna , the patron god of the ancient city of Ur. Unfortunately, this temple is destroyed and only several blue bricks have been found, believed to be of the temple's interior decoration.
By the end of the sixth century BC, this ziggurat was ruined because unlike the Egyptian pyramids, the ziggurats were made of mud bricks and stacked with bitumen or mud. These bricks were moistened by winter rains and cracked in the summer heat.
The ziggurat was restored twice; once by Neo-Babylonian King Nabonidus, in the sixth century BCE, he built several buildings on top of the main building. While Ur-Nammu used solid bitumen, mud and lime to build the ziggurat, Nabonidus' workers used ordinary mortars to repair it, so the wind and rain have gradually destroyed the structure after hundreds of years .
The second restoration process took place 2500 years later, in the 1980s, under the rule of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
Ur Ziggurat, Iraq
Other well-known ziggurats of the ancient world are the Ziggurat of Babylon, known as the Connection house of earth and sky, the Ziggurat of Nimrod, which was built for Marduk and Ishtar, two Assyrian gods in the tenth century BC, and Chogazanbil (1260 BC) as the temple of Inshushinak.
So far, 11 ziggurats have been discovered from historical written sources and 21 ziggurats from archaeological excavations.
It was built between 4700 and 4500 years ago, almost when writhing was invented. More than 125,000 bricks measuring 35 by 35 by 15 cm were used to build this ziggurat, which consists of three platforms on top of each other. The actual height of the ziggurat is unclear, but what remains of it today is 14 meters above ground level. The only access to the top of the ziggurat is a gentle slope ramp.
The Susa Ziggurat
Built about 3800 years ago which is now destroyed and we know about it from historical sources.
Konar Sandal Ziggurat
This one is located n Jiroft area, and has been recently discovered.
This ziggurat which is a thousand years older than zigurat in Choghazenbil, belonged to ancient Arta tribe. It has not yet been excavated completely.
Based on medieval Elamite excavations by Dr. Negahban in 1978, this structure was founded in 1357 BC.
Is the largest and most intact known ziggurat in the world.
Located near the Haft-Tepe Ziggurat, Choga Zanbil also belongs to the Middle Elamite period and was built in 1250 BC. The Russian-French archaeologist Roman Girshman carried out the first scientific excavations on an ancient mound where Chogha Zanbil existed beneath, and unveiled the five-storied ziggurat from under the soil. Three floors of this ziggurat have remained intact.
Ziggurat of Choghazanbil is located in Khuzestan province, 40 kilometers southeast of Susa and 20 kilometers from Haft-Tepeh, near the western bank of the Dez River.
Archaeological site of Chogazanbil consists of a huge ziggurat or temple built by Elamite King Untash Napirisha (c.1265–c. 1245 BCE) to fulfill the function of being the holy temple of god Inshushinak (Protective God of Susa) around 1250 BC. The ziggurat is a huge multiple-story monument whose floors are all built individually on the ground with different heights. The ground floor is a square of 103 x 103 m.
The Choghazenbil area is enclosed by a huge surrounding wall. Another inner wall encompasses the central building making an enclosure of about 400 * 400 m as a yard around the building. There used to be seven gates that connect the courtyards with the surrounding area of the ziggurat.
The main building of Chogazenbil ziggurat had originally five floors, that two of which have been destroyed. The main entrance in the south part of the complex has decorative bricks with colorful blue and white glaze and decorative motifs. The name of the founder, the Elamite King Untash Gal is inscripted on them in the Elamite cuneiform script along with Inshushinak, the great Elamite god.
The Sacrifice Platform: Around the temple, on the courtyard floor are two circular cut platforms, with unknown function. Some archeologists have considered them as altars, and others related them to astronomy and the sundial. But the prominent theory mentions them as Sacrifice platforms.
At Louvre Museum in Paris there is a bronze plate, most likely belonging to Chogazanbil Sacrificial Table. Two snakes and five women are seen around the sacrifice plate. The size, precision and elegance used in the construction of this plate show the great skill of the Elamite metalworkers.
Left: Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, British museum | Right: Inscription related to Ashurbanipal, Chogazanbil, Iran
The beautiful and scenic architecture of Dur-Untash attracted lots of people who migrated to this large city from different parts of Mesopotamia, but the prosperity didn't last long. With the death of King Untash Napierisha, his successors did not continue to complete the development of the city, and even some of the city's artworks and sculptures were moved to Susa. In the year 1260 BC, 611 years after the construction of the city of Dur-Untash, the powerful Assyrian king, Ashur Banipal, attacked Elam to take revenge on Elamites for the conquest of Babylon, the great ally of Assyrians.
In one of his inscriptions, the story of the conquest of Elam was described as follows: "I turned Susa and other Elamite cities into ashes and in one month and a day the land of Elam with all its breadth, I conquered. I deprived this land of cattle and sheep, and of music, and allowed the predators, snakes, and animals to conquer it."